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تأثير سوپرجاذبA200 در شرايط تنش خشکي بر برخي پارامترهاي فيتوشيميايي گياه فلفل قلمي (Capsicum frutescence) و بهره‌وري آب
عنوان (انگلیسی): Effect of super absorbent (A200) on some phytochemical characteristics and water productivity under drought stress in Hot Pepper Pplant (Capsicum frutescence)
نشریه: پژوهش آب ايران
شماره: پژوهش آب ايران (دوره: ۱۰، شماره: ۱)
نویسنده: رستمی، فرشته ، غلامی سفیدکوهی، محمدعلی ، شاهنظری، علی ، اکبرپور، وحید
کلیدواژه‌ها : كم‌آبي ، سوپرجاذب ، پارامترهاي فيتوشيميايي ، آبياري
کلیدواژه‌ها (انگلیسی): Water deficit , Phytochemical characteristics , Irrigation , Super absorbent
چکیده:

خشکسالي‌هاي پي در پي سبب شده تا در حال حاضر بيشتر نقاط جهان با بحران آب روبرو شوند. از اين‌رو براي صرفه‌جويي در مصرف آب بخش کشاورزي از فناوري‌هاي جديد و مواد مختلفي استفاده مي‌شود. يکي از اين مواد پليمرهاي سوپرجاذب بوده که مي‌توانند مقادير زيادي از آب حاصل از بارندگي و يا آبياري را جذب کرده و دوباره آن را در دسترس گياه قرار دهند. بر اين اساس،‏ اين پژوهش براي بررسي تأثير پليمر سوپرجاذب A200 در شرايط تنش خشکي بر برخي صفات فيتوشيميايي گياه فلفل مانند ويتامين ث،‏ مواد جامد محلول،‏ نشت يوني،‏ کلروفيل و بهره‌وري آب در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفي و آزمايش فاکتوريل با سه سطح آبياري شامل 50،‏ 75 و 100 درصد نياز آبي و چهار سطح پليمر سوپرجاذب شامل 0،‏ 1‎/0،‏ 2‎/0 و 3‎/0 درصد وزني انجام شد. نتايج نشان داد،‏ در شرايط تنش سطوح سوپرجاذب سبب افزايش مواد جامد محلول و کاهش نشت يوني در گياه فلفل قلمي خواهد شد. تحليل آماري نشان مي‌دهد که براي دستيابي به حداکثر بهره‌وري آب و کاهش اثرات منفي برخي از پارامترهاي فيتوشيميايي از جمله نشت يوني،‏ مناسب‌ترين سطح آبياري و سطح پليمر سوپرجاذب به ترتيب تأمين 50 درصد نياز آبي و کاربرد 3‎/0 درصد وزني سوپرجاذب است.

چکیده (انگلیسی):

Water deficit and consecutive droughts currently caused most of the world facing water crisis condition. In order to save water consumption in the agricultural sector, new technologies and several materials are used. One of these materials is superabsorbent polymers which are capable of absorbing high amounts of precipitation or irrigation and make them available for the plants use. Since the application of superabsorbent has significant impact on improving the morphological and phytochemical characteristics and has not been investigated on hot pepper till now, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of superabsorbent polymer (A200) under drought conditions on some of phytochemical characteristics of hot pepper (Capsicum frutescence) such as: Vitamin C, Total Soluble Solids, Ion Leakage, Chlorophyll Content and Water Productivity.
This Research was carried out in the research greenhouse of the department of horticulture at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Mentioned research was planned in a factorial based on a randomized complete design with three irrigation regimes (50, 75, and 100% of water requirement) and four levels of superabsorbent polymer (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% weight) in four replications. Plants were planted in 30 cm diameter and a height of 35 cm pots. A total of 4 TDR were installed in the root effective depth (18 cm) treated with full irrigation surface (water requirement of 100%) and different levels of superabsorbent. A digital Reflectometer device was used to calculate the total soluble solids (TSS). The method of Luts et al. (1996) was used to determine the ionic leakage. Chlorophyll a, b and total were determined based on methods of Pora et al. (1989). Vitamin C was determined via Saini et al. (2001) method. The fresh weight of each harvested fruit weighted by digital scale and were recorded as total fruit fresh weight per plant at the end of the experiment.
The interaction effect of irrigation levels and superabsorbent levels on ionic leakage was significant at 1 or 5 percent level (p<0.05). Based on analysis of variance, electrolyte leakage increased by reducing superabsorbent and increasing drought stress. Drought stress associated with the onset of oxidative stress and increases production and storage of free oxygen harmful groups. As a result of the drought stress, cell membrane fats would be quickly peroxidized and cell membrane stability disappears (Inez and Montague, 1995). Irrigation and superabsorbent were significantly affected the total chlorophyll. Stress causes an increase in total chlorophyll content and there is a significantly positive correlation between the amount of nitrogen, chlorophyll and SPAD. Increasing SPAD shows an increase in chlorophyll content per leaf area unit that is in agreement with the results of this study. The interaction between irrigation and superabsorbent on total chlorophyll was not significant that is in agreement with the results of Mousavi et al. (2012). The results also showed that the irrigation treatments had no significant effect on vitamin C. However, the trend showed that with increasing drought stress, vitamin C increased. The interaction between irrigation and superabsorbent on vitamin C was not significant. Increasing vitamin C under drought stress can be justified on the basis of secondary, because vitamin C is component of secondary metabolites that is composed of glucose synthesis (Wheeler Vasmyrnf, 1998) and secondary metabolites is one of the plant defense system components. The interaction between water stress and SAP was statistically significant on soluble solids at 5 percent level (p<0.05). Based on Figure 2 and Table 5 that shows the interaction effect of irrigation levels and superabsorbent levels, the effect of SAP on chlorophyll was lower at the higher irrigation levels. The fifty percent of water and 0.3% of SAP treatment had the highest level of soluble solids, that is correspond with Tanide et al. (2002) in tomato. The interaction of water stress and SAP levels on water productivity is statistically significant. The fifty percent of water and 0.3% SAP treatment had the highest level of water productivity and no significant difference was observed between this treatment and 50% irrigation with 0.2% superabsorbent treatment and 75% irrigation with 0.3% superabsorbent treatment. Results showed that the levels of superabsorbent caused an increase in the total soluble solids and decreased the ion leakage, under stress condition. This effect is probably due to reduced leaching and losing of water and absorption of water and nutrients in the superabsorbent; and subsequently the absorption of water and nutrients to the soil at the root zone of the plant in lots of water. According to the results of this study and shelf life of polymer in the soil, it can be concluded that the use of enough super absorbent polymers not only under well-watered conditions, but is justifiable under drought stress. Statistical analysis showed that in order to achieve maximum water productivity and reduce negative impacts of some of the phytochemical properties such as the ion leakage, the most appropriate levels of the irrigation regime and the superabsorbent polymer would supply 50% of water requirement and 0.3% of weight superabsorbent, respectively.

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صاحب امتیاز:
دانشگاه شهرکرد
مدیر مسئول:
دکتر حسين صمدی
سردبیر:
دکتر منوچهر حيدرپور
مدیر داخلی:
دکتر محمدعلی نصراصفهانی